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Cancer

Cancer

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Diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to spread

SDG 3: Good health and well-being
Health & Body

Definition:

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements.  While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they can also have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans. 

 

Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths.  Another 10% are due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity or excessive drinking of alcohol. Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants. In the developing world, 15% of cancers are due to infections such as Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus infection, Epstein–Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).  These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell. Typically, many genetic changes are required before cancer develops. Approximately 5–10% of cancers are due to inherited genetic defects from a person's parents. Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or screening tests. It is then typically further investigated by medical imaging and confirmed by biopsy. 

 

Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat and avoiding too much sunlight exposure.  Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer. The benefits of screening in breast cancer are controversial. Cancer is often treated with some combination of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Pain and symptom management are an important part of care.  Palliative care is particularly important in people with advanced disease. The chance of survival depends on the type of cancer and extent of disease at the start of treatment. In children under 15 at diagnosis, the five-year survival rate in the developed world is on average 80%. For cancer in the United States, the average five-year survival rate is 66%. 

 

In 2015, about 90.5 million people had cancer.  About 14.1 million new cases occur a year (not including skin cancer other than melanoma).  It caused about 8.8 million deaths (15.7% of deaths). The most common types of cancer in males are lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and stomach cancer.  In females, the most common types are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer and cervical cancer. If skin cancer other than melanoma were included in total new cancer cases each year, it would account for around 40% of cases.  In children, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors are most common, except in Africa where non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs more often. In 2012, about 165,000 children under 15 years of age were diagnosed with cancer. The risk of cancer increases significantly with age, and many cancers occur more commonly in developed countries. Rates are increasing as more people live to an old age and as lifestyle changes occur in the developing world.  The financial costs of cancer were estimated at $1.16 trillion USD per year as of 2010.

 

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May 26, 2021

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-05/lifc-lcr052421.php

A Ludwig Cancer Research study has discovered how to revive a powerful but functionally inert subset of anti-cancer immune cells that are often found within tumors for cancer therapy.


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May 26, 2021

https://scitechdaily.com/new-technology-makes-cancer-tumors-eliminate-themselves/

A new technology developed by University of Zurich researchers enables the body to produce therapeutic agents on demand at the exact location where they are needed. The innovation could reduce the side effects of cancer therapy and may hold the solution to better delivery of Covid-related therapies


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May 25, 2021

Development of AI medical imaging, new biomarkers, electrochemical immunosensors, and molecular diagnostic approaches are leading the way for advances in screening and diagnosing breast cancer.

SDG 3: Good health and well-being
AI
miRNA
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May 18, 2021

An introduction to these common cancers and look into advances like with improved imaging using low dose radiation x-ray technology, accessing tissues via ultrasound and optics, using liquid biopsies to measure ctDNA (tumor-derived fragmented DNA in the bloodstream), and AI powered diagnostics.


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May 11, 2021

Colorectal cancer contributes to 9.7% of the global cancer incidence. Current diagnosis is via colonoscopy imaging and screening is done by checking stool samples for blood and more recently early diagnosis biomarkers that are still in development.


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Apr 07, 2021

https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/icecure-medical-granted-fda-breakthrough-device-designation-for-prosense-cryoablation-system-301261926.html

IceCure Medical Ltd. (TASE: ICCM) ("IceCure" or the "Company"), developer of the next generation cryoablation technology that destroys tumors by freezing, announced today that it has been granted Designation as a Breakthrough Device from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its lead asset, ProSense®, and proposed indication for use, including for use in the treatment of patients with T1 invasive breast cancer and/or patients not suitable for surgical alternatives for the treatment of breast cancer.


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Mar 07, 2021

https://www.oncnursingnews.com/view/poziotinib-is-promising-in-egfr-exon-20-mutant-nsclc-treatment

Poziotinib, when given at a daily dose of 16 mg, was found to demonstrate clinically meaningful activity when used in treatment-naïve patients with metastatic non–small cell lung cancer who harbor EGFR exon 20 mutations.


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Feb 10, 2021

https://nypost.com/2021/02/08/street-lamps-can-increase-thyroid-cancer-risk-by-55/

The illuminating new “light pollution” study was published Monday in the American Cancer Society journal, Cancer.


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Feb 10, 2021

https://ats.org/our-impact/technion-researchers-discover-new-pathway-for-attacking-cancer-cells/

When treating cancer, researchers are always searching for ways to remove cancer cells while minimizing damage to the rest of the body. One possible approach is to find processes unique to cancer cells, and which would allow specific targeting. If such a process can be disrupted, only those cells would be affected. Professor Tomer Shlomi’s research group discovered such a process.


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Feb 10, 2021

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-02/uoc-hcr020821.php

Targeting and changing autophagy, otherwise known as cell recycling, has been linked to helping control or diminish certain cancers. Now, University of Cincinnati researchers have shown that completely halting this process in a very aggressive form of breast cancer may improve outcomes for patients one day.


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